2018.03.06

托福閱讀最經典的11個長難句分析


托福閱讀最經典的11個長難句分析,搞定它,再難的句子在你面前也是個渣!看見長難句就藍瘦香菇?
但沒辦法,托福閱讀就是這樣,要考試,就必須要面對長難句!

下文是托福大神從TPO中精心挑選的長難句,也是實際教學中,同學們遇到問題最多的句子,我們一起來“菇”一下:
 
1. According to conventional theory, yawning takes place when people are bored or sleepy and serves the function of increasing alertness by reversing, through deeper breathing, the drop in blood oxygen levels that are caused by the shallow breathing that accompanies lack of sleep or boredom.
【譯文】根據傳統的理論,當人們無聊或者困倦的時候,打哈欠會出現。打哈欠通過深呼吸來逆轉血液中氧含量的降低,從而的起到提高警覺的功能。而血液中氧含量的降低是由淺呼吸導致的,而淺呼吸又伴隨著缺覺或無聊。
 
2. The key factor in the success of these countries (along with high literacy, which contributed to it) was their ability to adapt to the international division of labor determined by the early industrializers and to stake out areas of specialization in international markets for which they were especially well suited. 
【譯文】這些國家成功的關鍵因素(促成這個因素的是高識字率)是他們有能力適應由早期的工業化國家決定的勞動力國際分工並佔領了他們特別適合的國際市場中的專業化領域。

3. In the second case, pollinators (insects, birds) obtain food from the flowering plant, and the plant has its pollen distributed and seeds dispersed much more efficiently than they would be if they were carried by the wind only.
【譯文】在第二個案例中, 傳粉者(昆蟲和鳥)從開花植物中獲取食物,而植物也使得它們的花粉和種子相比於只通過風傳播的更加高效。
 
4. In the green-to yellow lighting conditions of the lowest levels of the forest, yellow and green would be the brightest colors, but when an animal is signaling, these colors would not be very visible if the animal was sitting in an area with a yellowish or greenish background. 
【譯文】在森林最底層的黃綠管線條件下,黃和率可能是最亮的顏色,但是,當動物在發信號的時候,如果該動物處於黃綠背景下,這些顏色就不太明顯了。
 
5. In a countercurrent exchange system, the blood vessel scarrying cooled blood from the flippers run close enough to the blood vessels carrying warmblood from the body to pick up some heat from the warmer blood vessels; thus, the heat is transferred from the outgoing to the ingoing vessels before it reaches the flipper itself.
【譯文】在逆流交換系統中,來自於腳蹼的攜帶冷血的血管接近來自身體的攜帶熱血的血管來從較熱的血管中獲得熱量;因此,在達到腳蹼前,熱量從向外流的血管中轉移到了向內流的血管中。
 
6. American paleontologists David Raup and John Sepkoski, who have studied extinction rates in a number of fossil groups, suggest that episodes of increased extinction have recurred periodically, approximately every 26 million years since the mid-Cretaceous period.
【譯文】美國古生物學家D.R.和J.S,他們已經很多化石群的滅絕速率,指出,越來越多的滅絕是週期性重複出現的,從白堊紀中期開始,週期大約是沒二百六十萬年一次。
 
7. As among tribes people, personal relationships and a careful weighing of character have always been crucial in a mercantile economy with little regulation, where one's word is one's bond and where informal ties of trust cement together an international trade network.
【譯文】在部落人中,人際關係和對品德仔細的考量在一個幾乎沒有規範的重商主義經濟中一直都很重要。而在沒有規範的重商主義經濟中,一個的話語就是一個人的保證,非正式的信任紐帶將國際貿易網路年合起來。
 
8. The explanation is that the Maya excavated depressions, or modified natural depressions, and then plugged up leaks in the karst by plastering the bottoms of the depressions in order to create reservoirs, which collected rain from large plastered catchment basins and stored it for use in the dry season.
【譯文】解釋是,瑪雅人挖掘了大坑或者將天然的大坑修改,然後又通過把大坑的底部抹上灰泥把卡斯特地貌上的漏洞堵上,來製造蓄水池,這樣,就能從巨大的被灰泥堵住的蓄水池中收集雨水並儲存起來在幹季時使用。
 
9. Inequalities of gender have also existed in pastoralist societies, but they seem to have been softened by the absence of steep hierarchies of wealth in most communities, and also by the requirement that women acquire most of the skills of men, including, often, their military skills.
【譯文】性別的不平等也存在於畜牧社會中,但是,由於大部分社群中沒有出現森嚴的財富等級,而且需要女性具備大多數男性的技巧,諸如軍技巧,性別不平等就被軟化了。
 
10. Ramsay then studied a gas that was present in natural gas deposits and discovered that it was helium, an element whose presence in the Sun had been noted earlier in the spectrum of sunlight but that had not previously been known on Earth.
【譯文】拉姆齊(Ramsay)研究了一種存在於天然氣中的氣體,並發現是氦氣(helium),該元素早就在太陽裡通過太陽光光譜被發現了,但是還從來沒有在地球上被發現過。
 
11. Many complex factors led to the adoption of the new economies, not only at Abu Hureyra, but at many other locations such as 'Ain Ghazal, also in Syria, where goat toe bones showing the telltale marks of abrasion caused by foot tethering (binding) testify to early herding of domestic stock.
【譯文】很多複雜的因素導致了新經濟的採用,不僅出現在Abu Hureyra,很多其他的地方也有,比如說'Ain Ghaza,也就是敘利亞,在那裡,山羊腳趾的骨頭顯示有腳被綁住造成的磨損痕跡,這證實了早期的家畜蓄養。
 
由於篇幅限制,只發11個。
如果沒有譯文,這些句子你能翻譯出多少?你理解的意思是否正確?


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